Martin-Gallausiaux et al. Frontiers in Immunology
we investigated the impact of individual cultivable commensal bacteria on IDO-1 transcriptional expression and found that the short chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate was the main metabolite controlling IDO-1 expression in human primary IECs and IEC cell-lines. This butyrate-driven effect was independent of the G-protein coupled receptors GPR41, GPR43, and GPR109a and of the transcription factors SP1, AP1, and PPARγ for which binding sites were reported in the IDO-1 promoter. We demonstrated for the first time that butyrate represses IDO-1 expression by two distinct mechanisms. Firstly, butyrate decreases STAT1 expression leading to the inhibition of the IFNγ-dependent and phosphoSTAT1-driven transcription of IDO-1. In addition, we described a second mechanism by which butyrate impairs IDO-1 transcription in a STAT1-independent manner that could be attributed to its histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor property.